Mutual funds are managed by professional fund managers that collect money from multiple investors sharing a common investment objective. The gains that they generate from the collective investments are shared proportionately among the investors.

There are various types of mutual funds that are tailored to meet diverse investment goals. Equity or Growth Funds refer to investments in shares of companies. Touted as the best long-term investments capable of generating higher returns, Equity Funds facilitate wealth creation. You can choose from the Large Cap, Mid Cap and Small Cap funds meant for investments in large established businesses, mid-sized and small-sized companies respectively.You can also choose from Blend of Large , Mid and Small caps through Flexicap and Multicap Funds. Then there are tax saving funds (ELSS), Sectoral funds which Invests in a particular Sectors like Banking-Financial , Technology , Pharma etc and thematic funds (investments in common themes entailing infrastructure, NBFCs etc ).

The Fixed Income Funds or Bonds invest into Government securities, bonds, Money Market Instruments, Treasury bills and certificate of investments. They don't offer returns as high as the Equities do, but are safer than the same as well. They are more suitable for short term income generation, temporary parking of funds etc.

Hybrid Funds are a combination of Equity Funds & Fixed Income Funds, helping you make the most of both; wealth generation and short term income. Conservative Balanced Funds, Aggressive Balanced Funds, Child Plans and Pension Plans are just a few examples.

For Further Details for Categorization of Mutual Fund Schemes. Refer to the below mentioned Link.


No. Mutual Funds schemes are governed by a number of uncertain factors like market movement, the ability of the fund management team, time period of the investment and the various avenues of investment.

Like any other asset class, the returns on Mutual Funds are calculated based on the rate of appreciation of the value of your investment over a period as compared to the initial investment. Your returns are actually the result of the difference between the sale date Net Asset Value (NAV) and the purchase date Net Asset Value (NAV) upon purchase date Net Asset Value (NAV) reflected in percentage by multiplying the result by 100.

There are several categories of mutual funds and risk and return of all funds are different.It depends on the market conditions, the kind of fund you have invested into, and the period for which you stay invested. The returns from Equity funds tend to be highly volatile especially in the short term, whereas if you're investing in debt funds, you are expected to witness lesser volatility and comparatively steadier returns.

The inception of Mutual Funds can be traced back to 1924 when the Massachusetts Investors Trust was created. In India it came into existence along with the Unit Trust of India (UTI) in 1963. The Government of India and the Reserve Bank of India had jointly set up the UTI and it was in 1964 that the first Mutual Fund Scheme was launched. Stringent regulation, impressive AUM (Asset Under Management) and constant innovation have been the key drivers of growth for Mutual Funds. In 1987 the public sector banks besides the UTI started dealing with Mutual Funds. The liberalization of the private sector in 1993 meant that Mutual Funds could now be launched exclusively by the private sector too. Currently, as of 31st March 2021, the size of the Mutual fund Industry in India has grown to 31.43 Lakhs Crores.

Usually a period of 5 years plus is considered as long term, period between 3 years to 5 years is considered to be medium term, and the period less than 3 years is considered as short term when it comes to mutual fund investing.

There, of course, are myriad benefits of long-term investments. The effects of short-term fluctuations are duly offset. You can end up accumulating better risk adjusted returns than what you do in the short term. The better risk adjusted returns outweigh the short-term losses.

A mutual fund provides diversification through exposure to multiple equity shares. The reason that investing in a mutual fund is recommended over directly investing in equity shares is that an individual share carries more risk than a mutual fund (commonly known as concentration risk). This type of risk is also known as unsystematic risk. Therefore, if you'd like to invest directly in shares, you should research how you can compile your own basket of shares so that you don't own just one share. Make sure that you are sufficiently diversified between large and small companies, value and growth companies, domestic and international companies - all according to your risk profile. It might be helpful to seek out professional help when constructing these types of portfolios. This type of research and portfolio construction and monitoring can take a lot of time. The alternative is to invest in a mutual fund for instant diversification which allows you to simplify the whole process and save time. When you're investing through Mutual Funds, you're always actually investing in stocks, bonds or other forms of investments indirectly with the help of a professional fund manager.

Both savings and investments are necessary. While it's important to save, it's equally important to invest, since it yields higher returns and is crucial to fulfilling bigger goals in life.

No, it doesn't. Please understand that when you're buying a Mutual Fund, you're investing in it and not locking your money (except in case of Closed Ended Funds and ELSS). Supervised by a professional fund manager, the money always remains yours! You can access your money easily. Not only can you specify redemption dates you can also switch from one scheme to the other. What's more? The funds are backed by easy terms and conditions to help you make an informed decision.

Yes. Non Resident Indians (NRI) and Persons Of Indian Origin (PIO) can definitely invest in Indian Mutual Funds on repatriation as well as non-repatriation basis, provided they're adhering to all the KYC norms. A few countries such as the US and Canada have restricted investments by NRIs in Mutual Funds without relevant disclosures / documentation. So, it is advisable that NRIs from these countries should seek financial advice regarding the feasibility of investing in Indian funds before investing.

Yes, they should consider including Mutual Funds in their portfolio although the selection of the scheme depends upon the risk profile of the investor. A part of their retirement corpus can be invested into mutual funds, to generate a monthly income through Systematic Withdrawal Plan (more tax friendly returns than FDs). Since most of the retired people stay away from Mutual Funds, owing to the volatility of the stock market, debt funds could be a better option for them to start with.

Yes, even someone with modest earnings and savings can invest in Mutual Funds and make the most of the benefits like the ease of transaction, transparency, liquidity and dividends. Mutual Funds encourage the healthy habit of disciplined investing.

Your Asset Management Company outsources responsibilities to a Registrar & Transfer Agent (RTA), which maintains the records of investor details like address, signatures, bank details etc along with the transaction level investment details. RTA is in charge of safeguarding all your records against misuse.

Providing proper nomination facilitates the transfer of assets in case of demise of the investor. So, while opening a folio with any mutual fund, make sure you are nominating a person who can claim fund units or redemption proceeds, should anything unfortunate happen to you. Otherwise your legal heir will have to undergo a cumbersome & lengthy legal procedure to prove his/her heirship. You can choose to nominate one or more persons as your nominee and can also define their respective proportion(s). You can add or update nominees online as well. Alternatively, you can visit your nearest investor's service center, fill up a nomination form, submit all the nominee documents and you're sorted. You may also take the help of a Mutual Fund Distributor.

Alternately known as the Bond Funds or Fixed Income Funds, Debt Funds refer to the Mutual Fund schemes that encompass investments in Government Securities, Corporate Bonds and Corporate Debt Securities etc. These funds are particularly suited for the investors who are fine with comparatively lower but stable returns and have low risk tolerance. Since these funds are less susceptible to market volatility they ensure higher safety and liquidity. When compared to Equity, they are less volatile, offer lower returns but are definitely safer as well.

As against Equity Funds, the debt funds are tailored for those investors looking forward to generating regular income instead of aiming for long term wealth creation. There, of course, are different types of debt funds that you can invest in: Liquid Funds: Liquid funds are a type of debt funds that invest in very short-term money market instruments that are expected to generate fixed returns over a very short period. These funds invest in Treasury bills, commercial papers etc. of a very short residual maturity. An investor You keep earning something every day on any amount of money you choose to invest for any period of time. You can add or take your money out any time you like as well.

Corporate Bond Funds: These are investments in bonds issued by Corporates or companies. They have high rated portfolios with low to medium Duration.

Fixed Income Funds: Fairly long-term investments in company debentures, the fixed income funds have a potential to offer higher returns than the liquid funds.

Fixed Maturity Plans: It is a fixed tenure Fund where you earn interest on the money invested in Corporate Papers , G sec etc. The Fund is Close ended, the Redemption can be done through exchange if its listed or at the end of the tenure.

Credit Risk Fund : They are open ended Debt Scheme Predominantly invest in AA and below rated Corporate Papers. It aims to generate returns mainly in the form of accrual Income and partly through capital appreciation , as it holds paper with moderate duration.

Dynamic Bond Fund : They are open ended Debt Scheme investing across duration taking the view from the interest rate cycle. The duration of the fund can be actively managed by the fund manager.

G-Sec (Government Securities) Funds: These are also known as G-Sec or Gilt Funds that offer the highest degree of safety as these funds invest in Government securities issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on behalf of the government. The RBI issues securities with varying tenures to raise money for the government from various entities such as banks, insurance companies, and other institutions. They are vulnerable to changing interest rates, though.

They invest our money in fixed income securities, government bonds, money market instruments, repos, bank CDs etc.

Yes. These funds can act as a source of regular income for you because these funds are expected to generate steadier returns and therefore these funds can be used to generate tax efficient regular income vis-a-vis fixed deposits.

Debt funds are not the same as fixed deposits although both are backed by similar features. In both the cases you earn regular interests. In the case of FD, it's your bank which pays you and when it comes to Debt Funds, it's your Mutual fund House which pays you the amount received from the issuer of underlying securities of debt funds! FDs promise assured interests, while debt funds can not assure any returns, although the returns from the debt funds are more predictable than equity funds.

Debt funds usually cater to money market instruments and securities that bear interests. So, with the NAVs fluctuating, the price of these funds plummets with the rising rate of interest (Interest Rate Risk / Duration Risk) and vice versa. Then there are chances where the bond issuer may not be able to make the payment which is promised to you (Credit Risk). The credit risk also entails irregular payments from the bonds that you have invested in.

The bonds carry a fixed coupon rate at the time of issuance. If the rate of interest declines, then the bond turns out to be an attractive source of investment as it carries a higher rate of interest than what the current market has to offer you. As such, you secure higher returns from your fixed income bonds when the rate of interest goes down and vice versa. In other words we can say that the price of bonds is inversely related to the interest rate movements.

Your portfolio should reflect a healthy mix of asset categories to ensure long term financial well being. So, while equity funds entail chances of higher returns, debt funds are expected to generate lower but steadier returns. They are less susceptible to market volatility. Further, the debt funds can be used to create an emergency corpus for unforeseen financial hardships.

Debt funds are particularly susceptible to much less volatility than equities. As such it's suitable for new investors, retired people, very young investors who have just started their career and investors who are mainly looking for better risk adjusted and tax efficient returns.

Liquid mutual funds are considered when your money is lying idle in a savings bank account without being put to use. You, as an investor, might be clueless as to how to invest it. Liquid funds are a very good option to invest the surplus funds for the short term, keeping in view the value doesn't go down over the short term and the period of investment is not fixed. Keeping the money in a savings account is a good idea from a liquidity & safety perspective, though it entails low returns. The liquid funds, on the other hand, offer better returns than savings accounts, backed by complete flexibility of redemption at any time.

Alternately known as Growth Funds, Equity Funds are those Mutual funds that invest in the shares of companies. These funds can be broadly divided into multiple categories: Active and Passive Funds: In case of an Active Equity Fund, the fund manager actively researches the companies and surveys the market, has discussions with the Management of companies, to identify the companies with high growth potential and invest in the stocks of such companies. Passive Mutual Fund (commonly known as Index Funds) invests in stocks that replicate a particular stock market index like Nifty 50, Sensex, Nifty Next 50 etc. In case of a Passive Fund, the Fund Manager has no active role to play in stock selection & invests in the same securities as present in the underlying index in the same proportion and doesn't change the portfolio composition. These funds strive to offer returns comparable to the index they replicate.

Large, Mid & Small Cap Funds: Depending on the market capitalization of the companies they invest in, the Equity Funds are categorized as Large Cap, Mid Cap and Small Funds. The Large Cap funds are those funds which invest in large companies, the Mid Cap funds invest in mid-sized ones, and the Small Cap funds are those which invest in the stocks of small-sized companies.

Diversified, Sectoral & Thematic Funds: There are Diversified and Sectoral Equity funds as well. Diversified funds, of course, help you explore the entire gamut of the market across market capitalization & sectors, while Sectoral funds invest in a particular sector like Infrastructure, Banking, Pharma etc. Thematic funds are equity mutual funds that invest in stocks in line with a particular theme. These funds are a little more broad-based than sectoral funds, as they invest in companies and sectors integrated by an idea.

Just as its name suggests, a hybrid fund is basically the "hybrid" or combination of investments in two or more asset classes. As an investor, one has the option to invest in individual funds like Equity Funds, Debt Funds, Gold Funds. Besides this, one can also invest in hybrid funds to procure the benefits of more than one asset class. There are several hybrid funds that you can invest in. Some offer you the combination of gold and debt funds. Then there are the ones that include debt and equity. These are the most popular ones. You can also choose funds that invest in more than two asset categories.

Yes. There are different types of equity funds, catering to varied investor goals though the holistic purpose of Equity Funds is appreciation & creating wealth over longer periods: Large Cap Schemes: Counted among the most stable Equity Funds, the large cap schemes have an investment Universe of Top 100 listed Companies by Market Capitalization.

Mid Cap Schemes: These entail investments in the mid sized companies that have the potential to emerge as future market leaders. Thanks to the potential, these funds do carry higher returns but are riskier than the large cap funds at the same time. Mid Cap has an investment Universe of listed Companies by Market Capitalization ranked 101-250.

Small Cap Schemes: These entail the investments in the small companies with the highest potential for growth. The Small Cap Schemes are riskier than the Large and Mid Cap Equity Schemes. Listed companies which are ranked 251 and above by market capitalization form an investment universe.

Multi cap Schemes: They allow you the liberty to invest across Large, Mid & Small cap stocks to reap the exclusive benefits of each of those.

Index Funds: These funds simply mirror the composition of indices like S&P BSE Sensex or Nifty 50, without much role on the fund manager's part.

Sectoral / Thematic Funds: There are sectoral funds that invest in companies hailing from particular industries like banking, technology, pharma etc. Thematic funds are the ones that invest across industries but follow a theme like PSU, MNC etc.

ELSS or Equity Linked Savings Scheme offers a deduction from the total income up to Rs. 1.5 lakhs as per Section 80C of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Backed by both growth and dividend options, an ELSS has a 3-year lock-in period from the date of investment, post which you can either redeem your funds or choose to stay invested in. One can invest in this scheme through a lump sum investment or through SIP mode.

Yes, Mutual Funds can help in creating wealth provided you have realistic investment goals, a longer time frame and selecting the right funds catering to your financial aspirations.

You should consider investing in equity mutual funds. When it comes to long term wealth creation, you have to consider inflation as well. Equity mutual funds allow you to create wealth over a long period of time. In fact, it would be better to say that the expertise of the credentialed fund managers end up mitigating the risk associated with these funds.

The best part about Mutual Funds is that no matter what your Financial goals are, you can find a suitable scheme for it. You can choose debt funds, liquid funds or Equity Funds to fulfill your short, mid and long term financial goals successfully. Debt funds with their low but safe returns have the potential to generate regular monthly income. Invest in liquid funds if you've surplus money. The Equity funds are highly volatile schemes meant to weed out short term fluctuations and pave the way for long term wealth creation.

Fixed Deposits & other Traditional investments will offer you safe and steady returns but these returns are less immune to inflation. One must always consider taxes on the investment return and generally post tax returns for fixed deposits are lower than the inflation. The gap between inflation and investments will only widen over the years. Therefore one must consider having a diversified portfolio containing fixed deposits / traditional investments and mutual funds / other contemporary investments in order to achieve the financial goals.

Yes. You can. You might as well want to take a trip to a foreign country in 8 months or so. If you have surplus money, you can definitely park them in liquid funds/Short term Debt Funds and redeem them when you need it. You can also plan through the Mutual Fund route to fulfill other short term goals like buying a Bike or renovating your house.

There are various types of risks associated with different schemes of mutual funds. Market Risk, Business Risk, Credit Risk, Duration Risk & Liquidity Risk. Now, please don't forget that not all these types of risk end up affecting all the funds out there. Different funds experience different degrees of exposure to different risks. Please read the Scheme Information Document (SID) thoroughly to understand which fund is affected by what type of risk.

Seek professional help, follow SEBI guidelines and diversify your assets to mitigate risks. And yes, please don't think that a Mutual Fund house can run away with your money. The regulations governing the Mutual Fund Industry are way too stringent.

Let us tell you that though Mutual Fund risks remain a major source of concern for the investors, these can definitely be controlled provided you're informed about the right ways to do so. And, by allaying the fears, you would be able to make the most of the rewards. Here's a quick look at the same: The very first thing that you should know in this regard is that Mutual Funds are managed by experienced professionals that bring years of knowledge and expertise to the table to mitigate, if not completely, eliminate the risks.

It is very important for you to study & examine the different types of Mutual Funds thoroughly to understand how risky they are and how successfully they cater to your investment goals and risk tolerance. For instance, long term investments like Equity Funds might as well be impacted by short-term fluctuations in the market but in the long-term, they do have a potential to generate higher returns.

You will always endeavour to diversify your portfolio so that the underperformance of a particular asset is offset by the steady performance of the other one.

There is no direct answer to this. However, since Mutual Funds allow you to invest as low as Rs 500, it's advisable that you start investing as early as possible - ideally right from when you start earning. The amount should depend on your savings, earning, expenditures, financial goals and risk tolerance.

Choosing any one depends on your familiarity with Mutual Funds and your Goal. If you're looking to invest regularly in order to accumulate capital for a goal over a long period of time then opt for SIP in Equity funds. Those who have surplus cash flow in the form of regular incentives, bonuses or proceeds from a property sale, but not sure how to use it, can opt for lumpsum investments in Debt or Liquid funds.

Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) is an investment route offered by Mutual Funds wherein investors can invest a fixed amount in a Designated Scheme at regular intervals- it can by once a month or Quarterly .The installment amount could be as low as INR 100 a month and is similar to a recurring deposit.It's convenient as you can give your bank standing instructions/NACH mandate to debit the amount every month. SIP has become a popular Investment Route among Retail investors, as it helps in a getting discipline approach towards investing without worrying about market volatility and timing the market. Systematic Investment Plans offered by AMCs are easily the better way to enter the world of investments for the long term.

One should compare the performance of schemes having the same investment objectives like comparing two Bluechip funds or two Mid cap funds over a same time period. You cannot conduct a performance comparison of funds belonging to different asset categories quite simply because different asset categories cater to different investment goals, carrying variant levels of risk.

The two most important factors governing your choice of mutual fund scheme are your investment goals and your risk profile. The myriad mutual fund schemes that are available in the market cater to different investment goals. The different investors have different aspirations from their investments. While some of the investors look for long term wealth creation, there are others who only want their funds to generate a fixed income for them. When it comes to risk tolerance, there are a few funds that yield higher returns but are highly susceptible to market fluctuations, while there are others that offer low, but consistent returns. Investors with high risk tolerance usually prefer the former, while those with low risk appetite choose the latter. You may take the help of a mutual fund distributor for selecting a suitable fund for you as per your risk profile.

You should start investing as early as possible in your career, ideally in the beginning of your career. Save a little every month and start investing in mutual funds to give your money ample time to grow. If you start early, you will get the benefit of the power of compounding which is considered as the 8th wonder of the world. Even if you haven't started early, it's never a wrong time to do the right thing.

No, you need not have to invest a fortune in mutual funds. Depending on the type of fund you choose you can start investing with as low as Rs. 100. Even with a small amount, you as an investor would be entitled to benefits such as tax exemptions, diversified portfolios and professional management.

The best way to know this would be to consult with a Mutual Fund Distributor for suitability analysis. Understand the investment horizon, examine your investment goals and risk tolerance and then select funds.

Investing in mutual funds remains a simple and hassle-free procedure. You only need to complete a one-time KYC documentation with any of the KRAs. On the completion of the KYC verification process, you are ready to invest funds in various schemes across all the mutual fund houses. You can either get in touch with a mutual fund distributor to help you through the process or complete it yourself through eKYC. The next step would be to decide on a suitable set of mutual fund schemes as per your risk profile. You may choose to take the help of a Mutual Fund Distributor in this process. However, if you're confident of investing on your own (without the help or any kind of guidance whatsoever) you can do that as well.

There are multiple avenues through which you can track your investments like online tools, Mobile Apps, periodical account statements available to check the value of your investment and Periodic updates from mutual fund distributors as well.

One of the main advantages of Mutual Funds is Liquidity; the ease with which investors' units can be converted into cash. One needs to place a request for redemption with the Fund House either through an online or offline mode. Once the request for redemption is processed, the redemption proceeds would be transferred to your Bank account within 1-3 business days from the day you lodged your redemption. In certain cases, you might have to pay an exit load if you're withdrawing money before a specific period.

No. Not all the mutual fund schemes have a lock-in period. There are few schemes like Equity Linked Savings Schemes (ELSS) which have a lock-in period of 3 years post which you can either continue to stay invested or redeem the funds. Further, there are Fixed Maturity Plans (FMPs) and Close Ended Equity Funds where you have to stay invested for a specified period, as specified in the offer document for a captioned fund.

In case of an open ended scheme there is no restriction on the amount of money that you would want to withdraw. You can withdraw your money in an open ended scheme anytime and any number of times. However, in case of Closed Ended Schemes or Fixed Maturity Plans generally the redemption is done automatically at the end of tenure for the scheme. In some cases the liquidity is available through stock exchanges for such funds.

In case of an Open-ended Mutual Fund, you can redeem your units after the stipulated period at no cost. However, you'll have to bear an Exit Load if you're redeeming your units before the stipulated period. This exit load is meant to inspire investors (the ones with short-term goals) to spend the specified time in a particular fund and not redeem the funds that require a longer holding period. Exit Load is nothing but the percentage of NAV that's charged while you're redeeming your units. Besides Exit Load you will incur capital gains tax basis the type of mutual fund schemes you have and for the period that you've been holding them. In addition to this Securities Transaction Tax (STT) is also levied on the redemption of equity funds.

Open-ended schemes impose no penalties on withdrawal. However, there is a nominal exit load on the specific schemes, in case you're redeeming the funds earlier than the predefined exit load period.

Exit load is primarily imposed to discourage investors from withdrawing their funds earlier than the predetermined tenure. Staying invested for a longer term is expected to yield higher returns. A nominal exit load doesn't hurt liquidity much but definitely discourages you to withdraw money earlier.

The following persons can invest in a fixed deposit:

A. Individuals

B. Hindu Undivided Family (HUF)

C. Proprietorship Firms

D. Partnership Firms

E. Private Limited Companies

F. Public Limited Companies

G. Associations

H. Clubs

I. Societies

J. Beneficiary Trusts

K. Charitable Trusts

L. Minors (through guardians)

There are two types of fixed deposits; cumulative and non-cumulative.

In case of a cumulative FD, interest is paid at maturity along with the principal amount of deposit whereas in a non-cumulative FD, interest is paid in periodic intervals as per your choice like monthly, quarterly, half yearly or annually and principal amount is paid at maturity.

Interest is credited directly to your registered bank accounts.

The minimum amount varies across different institutions.while there is generally no upper limit.

This also varies across different institutions. Most of the banks and financial institutions offer additional interest to senior citizens over and above the card rates. This makes FDs more lucrative for senior citizens.

Yes. Interest earned on fixed deposits is fully taxable. TDS is deducted from the interest if the annual interest payment exceeds Rs. 40,000/-. Senior citizens are also entitled for a deduction of upto Rs. 50,000/- for FD and savings account interest taken together, while filing their income tax return.

Most of the banks and financial institutions offer tenures ranging from 7 days to 10 years.

Once a fixed deposit is issued with a rate specified on it, you will continue to receive that interest rate till maturity irrespective of the interest rate movements in the market. If you wish to avail the new higher rate due to an increase in the interest rate afterwards, you need to invest in a new deposit to avail the benefit of new rates.

Yes. The Nomination facility is available in fixed deposits. Nominations once made can also be changed subsequently.

Yes. In case the amount is deposited with a bank under the Tax Savings Deposit, the amount deposited is eligible for deduction upto 1.5 lakhs under section 80C of the Income Tax Act, 1961, in the financial year in which such amount is deposited. These deposits have a lock-in period of 5 years and can not be withdrawn prematurely and no loan / overdraft facility can be taken against these deposits. It is pertinent to note that although the amount deposited in these deposits qualifies for deduction under section 80C, the annual interest accrued on these deposits is fully taxable.

Yes. Non Resident Indians (NRI) and Persons Of Indian Origin (PIO) can definitely invest in Indian Mutual Funds on repatriation as well as non-repatriation basis, provided they're adhering to all the KYC norms. A few countries such as the US and Canada have restricted investments by NRIs in Mutual Funds without relevant disclosures / documentation. So, it is advisable that NRIs from these countries should seek financial advice regarding the feasibility of investing in Indian funds before investing.

Yes. The bank / financial institution may charge a penalty for premature withdrawal from a fixed deposit depending on the terms of issuance of such deposit.

Credit rating plays a very important role while you are deciding to invest in a particular fixed deposit. A high credit rating reflects that there is a high probability of the institution repaying the money and vice versa.

In case you need money from your FD, then instead of foreclosing your FD, you can take a loan / overdraft secured against your FD. Usually 70%-90% of the amount of FD is given as loan / overdraft by the banks and the rate of interest is linked to the rate of interest offered on FD plus a certain margin (usually 50bps - 100 bps).

Credit rating plays a very important role while you are deciding to invest in a particular fixed deposit. A high credit rating reflects that there is a high probability of the institution repaying the money and vice versa.

Portfolio Management Services (PMS) involve the management of investment in diverse assets including fixed income, stocks, structured products etc. by a professional fund management team. As an investor, you own individual securities instead of mutual funds. Each and every portfolio is crafted in a unique way, keeping the unique investment objectives.

There are two types of PMS; discretionary and non-discretionary. However most of the PMS available in the market are discretionary only.

Discretionary PMS: In this variant of PMS, type and timings of investments are decided by the fund manager and the discretion for investment lies with the fund manager and not the investor

Non-Discretionary PMS: In this variant PMS, the fund manager will only suggest the investment ideas. The decisions on timings as well as choice of the investment rests only with the investor. However, the execution of trade is done by the fund Manager. There are very few Non Discretionary PMS offerings in the market.

Besides cash, you can request your PMS manager to revamp your existing portfolio of mutual funds, stocks and bonds to meet specific financial goals.

A. Thorough professional management of your portfolio with constant monitoring

B. Customised portfolios for your various investment goals

C. Experienced and professional research teams to identify and mitigate risks in the portfolio

D. High flexibility of holding cash, moving cross market caps and allocating weights towards specific sectors / stocks

E. Periodic portfolio performance reports are provided to the investor

PMS caters to diverse financial aspirations. As such all types of investors including individuals, partnership firms, HUFs , Body Corporate and Sole Proprietorship firms can invest in PMS.

A PMS investor shares similar tax liabilities like that of an investor, who is directly dealing in the stock market, bonds and other related financial instruments. It's best if you're guided by your tax consultant.

As the PMS invests in stock market, bonds and other related financial products on your behalf, therefore all the risks associated with such instruments equally apply to PMS portfolios as well.

The National Pension Scheme or The National Pension System is a government-backed pension scheme that can be accessed by employees from both the public and private sectors. Even employees from the unorganized sector can apply for this scheme, provided they don't belong to the Armed Forces. The scheme, launched by Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority of India (PFRDA) in 2004 allows subscribers to invest as low as Rs. 6,000 p.a., which can either be paid as a lump sum or in installments.

Tier-I and Tier-II. Tier-I is a primary default account while Tier-II is a voluntary addition. Here are the differences between these two accounts:-

NPS Tier-I Account does not permit withdrawals while Tier-II does The former entails tax exemption up to Rs 2 lakh (in the ambit of 80C and 80CCD) while the latter allows 1.5 lakh tax exemption only for Central Government employees. The central government employee's contribution towards Tier-II of NPS for availing income tax deduction under Section 80C (up to ₹1.5 lakh) per year will have a lock-in period of 3 years You have to deposit a minimum initial contribution of Rs. 500 for Tier I account whereas the minimum initial contribution for Tier II account is Rs. 1000, payable at the time of registration. Subsequently, a Subscriber can make contributions subject to the following conditions:

Tier I:

Minimum amount per contribution - Rs. 500 Minimum contribution per Financial Year - Rs. 1,000 Minimum number of contributions in a Financial Year - one Over and above the mandated limit of a minimum of one contribution in Tier I, a Subscriber may decide on the frequency of the contributions across the year as per his / her convenience.

Tier II:

Minimum amount per contribution - Rs. 250 No minimum balance required There is no maximum limit of deposition in case of both the accounts

You have to be an Indian citizen KYC compliance is a must The minimum age limit is 18 years, while the maximum is 65 years You cannot open an NPS account if you have a pre-existing NPS account NPS account can be opened only in individual capacity and cannot be opened or operated jointly or for and on behalf of HUF

Can you open an NPS account if you are an NRI?

Yes, NRIs can open an NPS account subject to the following conditions:

One should be a Citizen of India, OCI (Overseas Citizens of India) and PIO (Person of Indian Origin) are not eligible Entry age is between 18-65 years Only individual accounts can be opened same as in case of resident Indians KYC compliance is must Contributions made by NRI are subject to regulatory requirements as prescribed by RBI and FEMA from time to time Contribution can be made either from NRE or NRO account At present, POA facility is not available in NPS

The National Pension Scheme is recommended for those who want to plan early for retirement but have low risk tolerance. Now, having a reliable retirement scheme is particularly advisable for those engaged in private-sector jobs. Salaried people looking for the 80C deductions (details below) must consider this one.

Some of the immediate benefits of this fund designed to secure the financial future after retirement have been mentioned below:

It has the potential to offer higher annualized post tax returns than other traditional retirement schemes Premature withdrawal is allowed under special circumstances. Post 3 consecutive years of contributing to the NPS fund, you can withdraw 25% of the fund for purposes like higher education, medical emergencies etc

Contribution to NPS is eligible for tax deduction under section 80C (upto maximum deduction of Rs 1.5 lac) and section 80CCD (upto Rs. 50,000 in addition to 80C) of the Income Tax Act, 1961 Subscribers can diversify within the NPS by choosing from Active Choice (where you can split funds as per your risk tolerance) and Auto Choice (relies on the risk profile and age of the investor) funds

You can contribute anytime throughout the year and change the amount in accordance with your convenience You can open an account without any hassle just by visiting eNPS website or at any one of the point Of presence (POP) It entails transparent investment norms strictly regulated and monitored by the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority You can change the fund manager if you aren't satisfied with the performance of the fund manager You can withdraw 60% of the fund post retirement which will be tax free and the remaining 40% has to be mandatorily utilised for purchasing the annuity from the insurance company of your choice

The investor is not allowed to withdraw the entire corpus post retirement. It's mandatory to keep at least 40% of the corpus aside in order to keep receiving a regular pension from an insurance firm registered under PFRDA. The remaining 60% of the corpus can be withdrawn, which will be tax-free.

NPS also provides the facility of Partial withdrawal before attaining the retirement ager subject to the following conditions:-

Subscriber should be in NPS at least for 3 years Withdrawal amount will not exceed 25% of the contributions made by the Subscriber Withdrawal can happen a maximum of three times during the entire tenure of the subscription. Withdrawal is allowed only against the specified reasons, for example;Higher education of children Marriage of children For the purchase/construction of a residential house (in specified conditions) For treatment of Critical illnesses

AIF refers to Alternative Investment Fund, which constitutes investment funds pooled from private equity, venture capital , managed funds and hedge funds among others. These involve high investment amounts unlike other avenues of investments like Mutual Funds, stocks, bonds etc.

Anyone with high net worth can invest in AIFs - regardless of whether he or she is an Indian or an NRI.

There are 3 main categories of AIF in which you can seek application Category I

A. SME Funds

B. Venture Capital Funds that include Angel Funds

C. Infrastructure Funds

D. Social Venture Funds

Category II

A. Debt Fund

B. Private Equity Fund

C. Fund of Funds

Category III

A. Private Investment in Public Equity Fund

B. Hedge Fund

A. Category I Investment funds entail investments in SMEs, Startups and socially and economically feasible projects

B. Category II investments include debts and securities

C. Category III investments are primarily short-term in nature, where returns are dependent on the effectiveness of complex strategies.

It's one of the Venture Capital Funds where fund managers source investments from several angel investors and reinvest them in up-coming startups to facilitate their development. They later earn dividends / capital appreciation when these startups earn profits.

This fund entails investments in debts and debt securities of either listed or unlisted investee companies in compliance with the specified objectives.

It is a mixture of various Alternative Investment Funds whereby you hold a portfolio of various funds (only publicly available sources) instead of investing directly in bonds, stocks and other sources.

An Alternative Investment Fund governed by the SEBI Regulations, 2012, can be incorporated or established as a company, or trust or limited liability partnership.

A corpus refers to the entire amount of funds that investors have committed through a written agreement or similar document.

Yes they do. The number of investors specified by the AIF Regulations varies with the type of funds. For instance, except the Angel Funds, no other schemes can actually have more than 1000 investors. No angel fund scheme can have more than 49 angel investors.

Sponsor refers to an individual or individuals who is/are responsible for setting up the Alternative Investment Fund. A sponsor includes designated partners in case of limited liability partnership and promoters in case of a company.

AIF can introduce schemes, provided they file a placement memorandum with SEBI. It needs to pay 1 lakh as scheme fees to SEBI, 30 days prior to the launch.

Yes. It does. The validity of this certificate lasts only till the winding up of the Alternative Investment Fund

No, they cannot. These investments are only pooled privately.

Yes. They can, provided they have not made investments under the previous category, where they were registered.

No. An angel fund should at least have a corpus of 10,000 crores, while for other funds it's 20,000 crores.

For AIF schemes launched under Category I & II shall be closed ended only. The tenure of such AIFs shall be determined at the time of application and shall be for a minimum of three years. Category III Alternative Investment Fund may be open ended or closed ended.

These funds are primarily tailored for individuals with high net worth. They offer exceptional potential for individuals who are looking to expand their portfolio. However, the degree of risk is also higher.

The SEBI Alternative Investment Funds Regulations 2012 and relevant circulars.

A life insurance policy is a contract between an individual and an insurance company, stating that the insurer will offer financial protection to the policyholder's family in exchange of a specific amount (known as premiums) to be paid by the life assured during the tenure of the policy. Life Insurance is a financial product wherein the insurance provider agrees to pay you or your dependants a sum of money in the event of death of the policy holder or, if the policy matures.

Life is uncertain. While death might be the last thing on your mind right now, you can never rule out uncertainties. Should anything happen to you in future, your family might end up struggling financially in the absence of your income. A life insurance cover ensures that your family is well protected against such financial challenges in your absence.

Term plans are the purest form of Life insurance. They are low cost, risk-free policies with highest coverage that are purchased for a fixed period of time. They provide a fixed amount to the beneficiary in case of the policy holder's death.

ULIPs or Unit Linked Insurance Plans are connected directly to the Capital Markets. Under this scheme, a part of the premium paid by you is utilized to offer you life insurance cover and the other part is reserved for a common pool of funds, which invests in debts, equities or a combination of both these funds. Since the returns are dependent on the performance of the markets, there are chances of you getting higher returns than that of traditional insurance plans. Return on investment in ULIP is subject to market and other associated risks.

An endowment policy is designed keeping both the life and death benefits in view. Known primarily as a savings-oriented plan, an endowment life insurance cover pays out a lump sum after a fixed period upon death or upon maturity. Depending on a specified age limit, the tenure of an endowment policy might vary between 10, 15, 20 years or so. The death benefit, of course, extends to the nominee in the event of the policy holder's death. The life benefit is given to the policyholder if he/she survives the maturity period.

In a money back plan the policy holder receives a percentage of the total sum assured as guaranteed payouts. These payouts are made at fixed intervals which are pre defined at the time of issuance of policy.

Whole life plans cover the policyholder for a lifetime or in some cases upto 100 years of age. Insurance provider pays the nominee the whole amount in case of any unfortunate event or to the policyholder at the time of maturity including all the bonus as well.

These plans are taken to build a corpus for future goals like education and marriage. In these plans a lump sum amount is paid generally on achieving certain milestones in a child's life. They also provide waiver of premium benefits in case of untimely death of the insured parent with all the policy benefits continued.

These plans help in providing financial security post retirement. They also help in accumulating savings over a longer time period and provide financial stability for the future. Pension plans help in building a corpus to ensure steady flow of income post retirement.

Health insurance protects you against a host of medical emergencies by offering financial assistance to meet the cost of hospitalization, ambulance costs, day care costs, pre and post hospitalisation costs and other healthcare expenses. Living in an era of uncertainties, one can hardly foresee when life chooses to throw its curveballs. Medical emergencies can strike you anytime - regardless of whether you're absolutely healthy or not.

In the wake of escalating medical inflation, a health insurance policy ensures that you aren't forced to compromise on quality healthcare just because you cannot afford it. It also ensures that savings made out of your hard earned money remain unaffected. With a comprehensive health insurance cover, you can access the following benefits:

Quality healthcare Specialised treatment Cashless hospitalization Pre and post hospitalization expenses Organ Donor expenses Domiciliary treatment Day care treatment Lifelong renewability No-claim benefits Overseas Medical Treatment expenses (for few specific policies only)

Coverage: Health Insurance Plans provide a wide coverage during a health-related emergency. It encompasses hospitalization and post hospitalization charges, critical illness, ambulance charges etc.

Co-payment: Co - payment option is provided by most insurers which helps in decreasing the yearly premium. The insurer pays a certain percentage of the total expenses incurred, while the balance is to be paid by the insured.

No Claim Bonus: NCB is provided to the insured person in the following year in case no claim has been taken in the previous year. NCB can be provided in the form of discount in subsequent year's premium or increase in subsequent year's Sum assured. Free Health Check - Up: Some Insurance companies also provide free Health check ups for all the family members at certain pre-defined frequencies.

Tax Benefits: You can access substantial tax benefits under section 80D of Income Tax Act, 1961.

Scenario Tax Exemptions Total Tax Exemption
Individual and parents are below 60 years Rs.25,000 + Rs.25,000 Rs.50,000
Individual below 60 years and parents above 60 years Rs.25,000 + Rs.50,000 Rs.75,000
Individual and parents both are above 60 years Rs.50,000 +Rs. 50,000 Rs.1,00,000

There are various types of health insurance plans catering to various needs. So, it's important on your end to make an informed decision about these policies by acquainting yourself with the types of health insurance that you have access to:

Fixed Benefit Health Insurance Plan: They pay you a one-time lump sum to help you meet almost endless medical expenses associated with a range of critical health conditions such as cancer, stroke, paralysis etc. It includes the following -

Critical Illness Plan Cancer Insurance Plan Personal Accident Plan

Indemnity Health Insurance Plan: It entails reimbursement of actual medical expenses, including the cashless ones, up to the sum insured. It includes the following -

Individual Plans

Family Floater

Top Up Plans

Senior Citizen Plans

A. To protect your vehicle against theft, vandalism, etc.

B. To cover the medical expenses due to accident

C. Mandatory as per Motor Vehicles Act in India

In India, it is mandatory to buy a motor insurance policy for a car owned by an individual / non-individual entity. This policy provides indemnity against the loss which may occur due to accident, theft, fire or other natural calamities. This policy, inter alia, covers the policyholder against the claims / legal liability that may arise from the injuries & damages caused to third parties / third party's property. Personal accident cover for Owner / Driver is mandatory in all car insurance policies in India unless you already have a valid Individual Personal Accident Policy. The personal accident cover is optional for the passengers.

Just like car insurance, it is also mandatory to have insurance cover for all two-wheelers like bikes or scooters. This policy covers the vehicle against damages from accidents, natural calamities, fire, theft, etc. as well as any damages and injuries caused to the third-party / third party's property due to the accident. As in case of car Insurance it is also mandatory in a two wheeler policy to buy a personal accident cover for the owner / driver. However, personal accident cover is optional for the passengers.

Commercial vehicles are vehicles which are not used for personal purposes by the owner. Trucks, buses, light commercial vehicles, taxi/cab, heavy commercial vehicles, multiutility vehicles, agricultural vehicles, ambulances, auto-rickshaw etc. are the examples of some of the vehicles that are covered under this type of insurance policy.

Third-party insurance is one of the most common types of motor insurance. This policy covers only the damages & losses caused to a third-party person, vehicle or property. This policy is the basic requirement under the Motor Vehicles Act to drive any vehicle on the road and non-compliance may attract severe penalties.

Comprehensive insurance covers both; the damages & losses caused to a third-party person, vehicle or property and the damages to your own vehicle due to accident, theft and natural calamities. Although it is not mandatory in India to buy comprehensive motor insurance policies yet it is highly advisable to have one for peace of mind and proper coverage against the risks.

A. Add-ons with Comprehensive Motor Insurance Policy : There are few of the 'Add-on' covers that can be availed by paying a slight premium over the basic motor insurance policy cost. Add-on covers are purely optional and can be availed on a case to case basis one's requirement. The following are the most popular add on covers available with comprehensive motor insurance policy.

B. Zero Depreciation: As the vehicle becomes older, the parts of the vehicle tend to have regular wear and tear. If the vehicle meets with an accident, the replacement parts are the brand new ones and do not have any wear and tear. Therefore, to cover the wear and tear, the insurer deducts a certain percentage from the total claim amount. However, if Zero Depreciation (popularly known as Zero-Dep) cover is purchased in the policy, no amount will be deducted from the insurance claim which effectively means that the wear and tear of the parts will also be compensated. Usually this cover is available for the first few years of buying a new vehicle. However as the vehicle becomes older, the cost of this cover increases.

C. Engine & Gear-Box Protection Cover: This add-on offers protection against the damages caused to the engine / gear-box of the vehicle. Any damage caused to the vehicle due to water entering the engine or due to leakage of the lubricating oil, is covered under the policy. It is advisable to buy this cover if you are staying at a place which has the possibility of heavy water logging or the road conditions are very bad.

D. Roadside Assistance: This add-on provides the cover against sudden on-road breakdown of the vehicle. A team of competent persons will come to your rescue on the road and will repair your vehicle there itself or in case it is not in a repairable condition, they will assist you to tow it down to the nearest service centre. This cover is recommended if you stay in a metro or a big city and usually travel long distances.

E. Consumable Cover: This covers the cost of consumables used to repair your vehicle in case of an accident. Engine oil, grease, gaskets, nut bolts etc. are some of the examples of the consumables which will be covered under this add-on.

F. Return to Invoice Cover: This add-on will only be relevant in case of theft or total loss of the vehicle due to an accident. Usually there are many costs which are added to the ex-showroom price of the vehicle like registration charges, road tax, insurance, accessories etc. In case of theft or total loss of the vehicle, you will be compensated with the full invoice amount of the vehicle and not just the ex-showroom price.

G. Tyre Protect Cover: Tyre Protect Cover will cover the damage to the tyres like tyre bursts, cuts and bulges due to accidents. Normal wear and tear to tyres will not be covered under this policy. It is recommended to buy this cover especially if you are using a high end luxury vehicle.

It makes sense to take Third Party insurance if you use your vehicle only occasionally and not on a daily basis, as there will be lesser chances of a mishap. Moreover, it also makes sense if you are planning on selling your car in near future.

Having said that, it is still recommended to have a Comprehensive Insurance over Third Party Insurance, for the simple reason that its benefits outweigh the premium you pay.

NRIs are allowed to invest in mutual funds in India- subject to requisite compliances of Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA). However, some Fund Houses do not accept mutual fund applications from NRIs pertaining to Canada and the USA.

Mutual Fund Houses in India are not allowed to accept investments in foreign currencies. Hence, the first step to investing in the Indian mutual funds is to open an NRO / NRE account with an Indian bank. Investments done through NRO account are not freely repatriable whereas the investments done through NRE account are freely repatriable.

If you have made the payment via cheque or a demand draft or through online transfer from an NRE account, then you must provide a foreign inward remittance certificate (FIRC) to the Mutual Fund House. In case FIRC is not available a statement of the NRE account reflecting the debit transaction for investment or a letter from the bank confirming the source of the transaction as NRE account can also be submitted. It is important to note that the investor needs to submit the proof of payment from the NRE account at the time of each transaction to the fund house, if such transaction has been made through an NRE account.

A. Photograph

B. PAN card

C. Local Address Proof (India)

D. Overseas Address Proof

E. Copy of Passport

To complete the KYC process, you must submit self attested copies of all the above mentioned documents to the fund house along with the KYC Form & FATCA Form. KYC is a one time activity and a single KYC can be used to invest across financial instruments in India. Power of Attorney: Another popular method for NRIs is to appoint someone else in India to invest on your behalf. The POA holder can be one of your relatives or friends whom you can trust for your investments. Mutual Fund Houses allow the power of attorney POA holders to invest on your behalf and also make investment decisions. However, signatures of both the NRI investor and POA holder must be present on the KYC documents if you wish to invest in mutual funds in India through this route.

At the time of redemption of your mutual fund units, the Fund House will credit the redemption proceeds to your bank account registered in folio, after TDS deduction if applicable. One may choose to provide relevant documents for the Double Tax Avoidance Agreement of India with your country of residence. If that is registered in the folio, TDS applicability will be as per the DTAA and not as per the Income Tax Act.

For more details of TDS, you may refer to the Tax Reckoner (LINK)

Till the time one maintains the status of NRI, your investment has the right of repatriation of the amount invested and amount earned subject to deduction / payment of applicable taxes.

Submitting local and overseas address proof is mandatory. Hence, one must provide a self attested copy of the proof of local and overseas address along with the application for investment.

The compliance requirements in the United States of America and Canada are more stringent as compared to other nations.

In short, NRIs can choose to invest in his/her home country. The process may have some initial hassles. However, in the long run, the return on investment should be worth it.

Currently, only few fund houses accept mutual fund investment from NRIs residing in the US and Canada. So, there is certainly no reason for you to be left out of investing in one of the fastest-growing economies of the World.